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Membrane protein GARP is a receptor for latent TGF-beta

    

 

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1, 2, and 3 (TGFβ1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) are highly pleiotropic cytokines that virtually all cell types secrete. TGF molecules are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. TGF-β1 is involved in hematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation; TGF-β2 affects development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear, and urogenital systems; and TGF-β3 influences palatogenesis and pulmonary development. 

 

Human Treg and Th clones secrete the latent form of TGF-β, in which the mature TGF-β protein is bound to the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and is thereby prevented from binding to the TGF-βreceptor. ELISA(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a method for detecting the concentration of some kind antigen or antibody,such as TGF-β and TGF-β receptor,in experimental sample, using the characteristic of specific binding between antigen-antibody. The method is suitable for determination of cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma and tissue fluid, urine samples, can measure the concentration level ng/ml of cytokines (or cytokine receptors) .

 

We previously showed that upon TCR stimulation, human Treg clones but not Th clones produce active TGF-β and bear LAP on their surface. Here, we show that latent TGF-β, i.e. both LAP and mature TGFβ, binds to glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), a transmembrane protein containing leucine rich repeats, which is present on the surface of stimulated Treg clones but not on Th clones.The ELISA kit is a useful tool to study the role of GARP. Membrane localization of latent TGF-β mediated by binding to GARP may be necessary for the ability of Treg to activate TGF-β upon TCR stimulation. Meretciel offer high quality ELISA kit ,as well as technical support to lab researchers to study the activation of TGF-β upon TCR stimulation.

 

 

However, it is not sufficient as lentiviral-mediated expression of GARP in human Th cells induces binding of latent TGF-β to the cell surface, but does not result in the production of active TGF-β upon stimulation of these Th cells.

 

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