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The biological activities of TGF-β




The TGF-β system is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom.The biological activities of TGF-β are not species-specific. The various TGF-β isotypes share many biological activities.In some systems TGF-β3 appears to be more active than the other isotypes. And TGF-β2 is the only variant that does not inhibit the growth of endothelial cells. TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, but not TGF-β1, inhibit the survival of cultured embryonic chick ciliary ganglionic neurons. The most pronounced differences in the TGF-β isoforms is their spatially and temporally distinct expression of both the mRNAs and proteins in developing tissues, regenerating tissues, and in pathologic responses.

ELISA(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a method for detecting the concentration of some kind antigen or antibody,such as TGF-β,using the characteristic of specific binding between antigen-antibody. The method is suitable for determination of cell culture supernatant, serum, plasma,tissue fluid, and urine samples. Meretciel provide high quality ELISA kits for R&D,can syudy the biological activities of TGF-β.

TGF-βinhibits the proliferation of T-lymphocytes by downregulating predominantly IL2 mediated proliferative signals. It also inhibits the growth of natural killer cells in vivo and deactivates macrophages. TGF-β blocks the antitumor activity mediated in vivo by IL2 and transferred lymphokine-activated or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes . TGF-β inhibits the synthesis of GM-CSF, IL3, and the expression of the receptor for G-CSF. It also inhibits the growth of immature hematopoietic progenitor cells induced by IL3, GM-CSF, and M-CSF.TGF-β also inhibits megakaryocytopoiesis. In many cell types TGF-β antagonizes the biological activities of EGF, PDGF,aFGF and bFGF. TGF-β-1 and TGF-β-2 inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes induced by IL1. The latent form of TGF-βis a strong inhibitor of erythroleukemia cell lines.

The extent of growth inhibition induced by TGF-β depends on the cell type, on the concentration of TGF-β, and on the presence of other factors. The growth-inhibitory activities of TGF-β can be abolished by HGF (hepatocyte growth factor). 

Although TGF-β inhibits the growth of endothelial cells it promotes angiogenesis in several bioassays.And TGF-β stimulates the growth of some cell types of mesenchymal origin including fibroblasts and osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro. TGF-β induces the synthesis of bone matrix proteins in osteoblasts.At concentrations of 1-2 fg/cell TGF-βis a growth inhibitor for smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and chondrocytes.But at higher concentrations TGF-βstimulates the growth of these cells.
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